AP BIology used with Cambell book

I. The Chemistry of Life is organized into metabolic pathways
II. Organisms transform energy.
III. The energy transformations of life are subject to two laws of thermodynamics
IV. Organisms live at the expense of free energy
  • Free Energy: A Criterion for Spontaneous Change
  • Free Energy and Equilibrium
  • Free Energy and Metabolism
V. ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic to endergonic reactions
  • The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP
  • How ATP performs work
  • The Regeneration of ATP
VI. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy bariers

VII. Enzymes are substrate-specific

VIII. The active site is an enzyme's catalytic center

IX. A cell's chemical and physical environment affects enzyme activity
  • Effects of Temperature and pH
  • Cofactors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Allosteric Regulation
  • Cooperativity
X. Metabolic order emerges from the cell's regulatory systems and structural organization
  • Feedback inhibition
  • Structural Order and Metabolism

pre-AP Outline used with Starr and Taggart Book

I. Energy and the Underlying Organization of Life
  • Defining Energy
    • Potential
    • Kinetic
  • How Mush Energy is Available
    • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy
II. The Directional Nature of Metabolism
  • Which Way will a reaction run
    • Chemical Reactions
    • Chemical Equilibrium
    • Law of Conservation of mass
  • Energy Inputs
    • Exergonic Reactions
    • Endergonic Reactions
III. Energy Transfers and Cellular Work
  • Structure of ATP
    • phosphorylation
    • ATP/ADP cycling
  • Metabolic Pathways
    • Biosynthenis
    • Degradative
IV. Enzyme Structure and Function
  • Four Features of Enzymes
  • Enzyme-Substrate Interactions
    • Induced -fit model
    • Mechanisms involved in inducing transition states
V. Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Control of Enzyme Function
    • Allosteric
    • Feedback inhibition
  • Enzyme Helpers
    • coenzymes
VI. Electron Transfers Through Transport Systems
  • Oxidation-reduction reactions
  • electron transport system