pre-AP objectives are highlighted
1. Explain the role of catabolic and anabolic pathways in the energy exchanges of cellular metabolism.
2. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.
3. Distinguish between open and closed systems.
4. Explain in their own words, the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.
5. Explain why highly ordered living organisms do not violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
6. Distinguish between entropy and enthalpy.
7. Write Gibbs equation for free energy change.
8. Explain how changes in enthalpy, entropy and temperature influence the maximum amount of useable energy that can be harvested from a reaction.
9. Explain the usefulness of free energy.
10. List two major factors capable of driving spontaneous processes.
11. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
12. Describe the relationship between equilibrium and free energy change for a reaction.
13. Describe the function of ATP in the cell.
14. List the three components of ATP and identify the major class of macromolecules to which it belongs.
15. Explain how ATP performs cellular work.
16. Explain why chemical disequilibrium is essential for life.
17. Describe the energy profile of a chemical reaction including activation energy, free energy change, and transition state.
18. Describe the function of enzymes in biological systems.
19. Explain the relationship between enzyme structure and enzyme specificity.
20. Explain the induced fit model of enzymes function and describe the catalytic cycle of an enzyme.
21. Describe several mechanisms by which enzymes lower activation energy.
22. Explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction.
23. Explain how enzyme activity can be regulated or controlled by environmental conditions, cofactors, enzyme inhibitors and allosteric regulators.
24. Distinguish between allosteric activation and cooperativity.
25. Explain how metabolic pathways are regulated.


Cellular Metabolism Outline
Cellular Metabolism Vocabulary

AP Biology Notes

pre-AP Biology Notes

Ground Rules of Metabolism

Photosynthesis Objectives


Cellular Respiration Objectives

Cellular Respiration

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