1. Give an example of incomplete dominance.
2. Explain how the phenotypic expression of the heterozygote is affected by complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance.
3. Explain the inheritance of the ABO blood system and explain why the IA and IB alleles are said to be codominant.
4. Describe a simple model for polygenic inheritance (continuous variation).
5. Describe how environmental conditions can influence the phenotypic expression of a characteristic.
6. Give a simple family pedigree, deduce the genotypes for some of the family members.
7. Describe the inheritance and expression of cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and sickle-cell disease.
8. Explain how lethal recessive gene can be maintained in a population.
9. Explain why lethal dominant genes are much more rare in a population than lethal recessive.
10. Give an example of late-acting lethal dominant in humans and explain how it can escape elimination.
11. Explain X-linked recessive inheritance and X-linked dominant inheritance and give examples of conditions that follow these inheritance patterns.
12. Identify using karyotyes and Explain examples and effects of aneuploidy, polyploidy, change in the number of Autosomes, and change in number of sex chromosomes.
13. Identify and Explain examples and effects of chromosomal mutations; deletions, duplication, inversions, and translocations.
14. Identify and explain the scientific contributions that resulted in the discover of the structure of DNA.
15. List the three components of a nucleotide.
16. Distinguish between deoxyribose and ribose.
17. List the nitrogen bases found in DNA and distinguish between pyrimidine and purine.
18. Explain the "base-pairing rule" and describe its significance.
19. Describe the structure of DNA and explain what kind of chemical bond connects the nucleotides of each strand and what type of bond holds the two strands together.
20. Explain, in your own words, semiconservative replication.
21. Explain what energy source drives endergonic synthesis of DNA.
22. Define anitiparallel and explain why continuous synthesis of both DNA strands is not possible.
23.Distinguish between the leading strand and the lagging strand.
24.Explain how the lagging strand is synthesized when DNA polymerase can add nucleotides only to the 3' end.
25. Explain the role of DNA polymerase, ligase and repair enzymes in DNA proofreading and repair.
26. Describe Beadle and Tatum's experiments and the contribution they made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism.
27. Distinguish between "one gene-one enzyme" hypothesis and "one gene-one polypeptide,"
28. Explain how RNA differs from DNA
29. Briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein.
30. Distinguish between transcription and translation and where these two processes take place in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Also understand why these two processes are separated in space and time in a eukaryotic cell.
31. Define codon, and explain what relationship exists between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
32. Explain the process of transcription including the initiation, elongation, and termination.
33. Know the enzymes involved in transcription and translation and their functions in each process.
34.Distinguish among mRNA, tRNA, and mRNA.
35.Given a sequence of bases in DNA, predict the corresponding codons transcribed on mRNA and the corresponding anticodons of tRNA.
36.Explain the process of translation including initiation, elongation, and termination. Be sure you know and understand the enzymes involved.
37.Explain how eukaryotic mRNA is processed before it leaves the nucleus and how this is enables about 20,000 genes to produce 200,000 proteins.
38. Explain the base pair mutations and their impact on protein production.


Inheritance and Genetics Outline
Inheritance and Genetics Vocabulary
Patterns of Inheritance Notes
Human Genetics Notes