AP Objectives

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After reading this chapter, focusing during lectures, and participating fully in labs you should be able to:
1. Diagram energy flow through the biosphere
2. Describe the overall summary equation for cellular respiration.
3. Distinguish between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.
4. Explain how exergonic oxidation of glucose is coupled to endergonic synthesis of ATP.
5. Define oxidation and reduction.
6. Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy changes
7. Define coenzyme and list those involved in respiration.
8. Describe the structure of coenzymes and explain how they function in redox reactions.
9. Describe the role of ATP in coupled reactions.
10. Explain why ATP is required for the preparatory steps of glycolysis.
11. Describe how the carbon skeleton of glucose changes as it proceeds through glycolysis.
12. Identify where in glycolysis that sugar oxidation, substrate-level phosphorylation and reduction of coenzymes occur.
13. Write a summary equation for glycolysis and describe where it occurs in the cell.
14. Describe where pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA, what molecules are produced and how it links glycolysis to the the Krebs Cycle.
15. Describe the location, molecules in and molecules out for the Krebs Cycle.
16. Explain at what point during cellular respiration glucose is completely oxidized.
17. Explain how the exergonic slide of electrons down the electron transport chain is coupled in the endergonic production of ATP by chemiosmosis.
18. Describe the process of chemiosmosis.
19. Explain how membrane structure is related to membrane function in chemiosmosis.
20. Summarize the net ATP yield from the oxidation of a glucose molecule by constructing an ATP ledger which includes coenzyme production during the different stages of glycolysis and cellular respiration.21. Describe the fate of pyruvate in the absence of oxygen.22. Explain why fermentation is necessary.23. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
24. Describe how food molecules other than glucose can be oxidized to make ATP.
25. Describe evidence that the first prokaryotes produced ATP by glycolysis.
26. Explain how ATP production is controlled by the cell and what role the allosteric enzymes, phosphofructokinase, plays in this process.

Cellular Respiration Study Outline
Cellular Respiration Vocabulary